The Lake Baikal
Baikal. The amazing beauty of the lake, the unique creation of nature, crystal clear water… Probably every person in greater or lesser extent heard about the deepest lake on our planet. What do you know about Baikal?
Lake Baikal is located almost in the center of Eurasia, surrounded by high mountain ranges of the Baikal region. In length the lake stretches for 636 km, width – 80 km By area, Baikal is $ 31 470 km2. comparable to the size of Belgium (in this European country with cities and industrial centers with a population of almost 10 million people). The maximum depth of the lake – 1637 km – allow you to call Baikal the deepest in the world (average depth – 730 m). The African lake Tanganyika, which is among the deepest lakes on the planet, “behind” from lake Baikal to 200 m. of the thirty Islands is the largest island.
Baikal fill three hundred and thirty-six permanent rivers and streams, with half of the water brings the Selenga. Flows out of lake only river – Angara. To estimate the volume of lake Baikal, imagine that in ideal conditions (that will not fall and will not evaporate any drop from the surface), the Hangar, passing 60,9 km 3 of water annually, will need 387 years of continuous operation, to drain the lake!
In addition, lake Baikal is the oldestlake on our planet, its age estimated to constitute 20-30 million years.
Clean, clear Baikal water, saturated with oxygen, has long been considered curative. Thanks to the activity of living organisms inhabiting it, weakly mineralized water (almost distilled), which explains its crystal clarity. In the spring of the water transparency reaches 40 meters!
Baikal is the repository of 20% of the world’s and 90% of Russian reserves of fresh water. For comparison, this is more than the reserves of water in the five Great American lakes combined! The ecosystem of lake Baikal give about 60 km 3 of water in a year.
Amazing and diverse flora and fauna of lake Baikal, making it unique among freshwater lakes. Who has not heard of the famous Baikal omul? In addition to his usual lake whitefish, lenok, taimen – the representatives of the salmon family. Sturgeon, thymallidae, and pike, carp, catfish, cod, perch – this is not the whole list of fish families inhabiting in Baikal. Not to mention the Baikal seal is the only representative of mammals in the lake. Autumn on the rocky shores you can see many rookeries of Baikal seals. Nerpa is not the only inhabitant of the coasts, a variety of gulls, mergansers, Goldeneyes, velvet scoters, ruddy shelducks, white-tailed eagles, Skopje and other birds nest along the shores and on the Islands. In addition to those on lake Baikal you can see the mass exit on the shore of brown bears.
The flora and fauna of Baikal endemic. 848 species (15%) and 133 species (15%) do not occur in any reservoir of the Earth.
The uniqueness and beauty of lake Baikal each year attracts an increasing number of tourists, including foreign tourists. This also contributes to developing infrastructure. Therefore, the main objective is to preserve the integrity of the lake ecosystem.